Pseudohemiodon apithanos is a striking and unmistakable fish. Its common name is Chameleon Whiptail and belongs to the family of Loricariidae. It has become famous with this name because of its ability to change colors when it feels any danger around or something disturbs it. It becomes fully black in such situations. The normal coloration of the fish is either light brown or grey. A dark brown or fully black strip extends from the snout starting between the eyes to the mid-body and forms a dark band around the flank of the fish. There are two more dark black bands at the back.
The head of the fish is triangular and two small eyes exist prominently on the forehead. In natural environments, it is lives among leaf litter spread over the sandy substrate. This environment may cause this fish to gain the chameleon-like attribute. During the day, the fish remains buried under the sand but comes out during the night time in search of food.